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Subject Religion

DOI: 10.1111/b.9780631181392.1995.x


[ xxvii ] This new Africanizing movement was one of the larger to emerge in west Africa and traces to Muhammad ben Amadu, a gentle mystic reformer of the ritual of the Tijaniyya, a S ufi order , who formed a small brotherhood among the Wolof traders in what is modern Mali before his death in 1909. It was his successor, Shaikh Hamahu'ullah ben Muhammed (1886–1943), commonly known as Hamallah, who expanded the reformed Tijani order among the peasant population. Violent clashes with traditional T ijanis led the French to deport Hamallah successively to Mauretania, the Ivory Coast and France, where he died in 1943. The fraternity he developed later declined, although it still numbered perhaps 50,000 in Mali by the 1970s and extended to Mauretania. Deviations from orthodox I slam included omission of ‘and M uhammad is his prophet’ from the profession of faith, or even substituting reference to Hamallah; rejection of the pilgrimage to Mecca and sometimes of the Q u'ran itself; replacing the prayer position towards Mecca with orientation towards Nioro, ‘the Mecca of Hamallism’; and shouting the prayers themselves. Other opposition derived from its challenge to the social order by emphasis upon the equality of social classes – of young men against the elders, of lower classes against the elites, of slave tribes and to some extent of women in worship. In this way it contributed to the ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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