Full Text

BICS/CALP

KJ


Subject Linguistics

DOI: 10.1111/b.9780631214823.1999.x


Extract

One of those who challenged Oller's unitary competence hypothesis Was Cummins (1980) , who distinguishes ‘basic interpersonal communicative skills’ and ‘cognitive/academic language proficiency’. The latter are the skills which many tests tap, and are ‘strongly related to general cognitive skills … and to academic achievement’ (1980: 176). BICS is a quite separate dimension, to do with communicative capacity especially in interpersonal oral communication. A similar distinction is found in earlier studies like Genesee's (1976) on the role of intelligence in language learning. Cummins (1981) later related the distinction to ‘context-reduced’ (CALP associated) and ‘context-embedded’ communication (BICS associated). ( 1980 ). The cross-lingual dimension of language proficiency: implications for bilingual education and the optimal age issue . TESOL Quarterly , 14 , 175 – 87 . ( 1981 ). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students . Sacramento , CA : California State Department of Education, Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education . ( 1978 ). The role of intelligence in second language learning . Language Learning , 26/2 , 267 – 80 . ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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