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Subject Philosophy

DOI: 10.1111/b.9780631219088.2002.00048.x


a priori-a posteriori An epistemological distinction. A priori propositions, unlike a posteriori propositions, do not require experience to establish their truth. We derive or justify a priori concepts, unlike a posteriori concepts, independent of experience . abstract ideas Locke's attempt, rejected by Berkeley, to explain how an idea can stand for individuals of a given kind, even though the individuals vary in their properties. Locke held that abstraction from the different properties would produce a general idea covering the right individuals . abstract objects Objects, such as numbers or universals, that do not exist as spatio-temporal particulars. Philosophers disagree about whether there can be such objects or, if they do exist, how they are related to concrete physical objects . ad hominem argument A fallacious argument attacking the holder of a view rather than the position itself, or a sound argument showing an inconsistency between a view held by a person and a consequence of that view. The person pointing out the inconsistency need not hold the initial view . akrasia The Greek term for weakness of will. In akrasia one does not do what one knows to be best or does what one knows not to be best. Socrates and Aristotle initiated attempts to determine whether akrasia is possible . alienation/estrangement Hegelian concept, also used by Marx and ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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