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Subject Religion » Christianity

DOI: 10.1111/b.9780631232032.2001.x


(1) Title given in Jewish and Christian tradition to the righteous men counted as ancestors of all humanity, including the penitent Adam and Noe (Noah); also to Abraham and his lineage as ancestors of the Hebrews. The matriarchs are also greatly venerated, especially in Jewish tradition. The patriarchs and matriarchs are also celebrated liturgically and iconographically as ancestors of Christ. (2) With the Christianization of the Roman empire, the bishops of the empire's regional capitals acquired formal recognition of their authority over the churches of their imperial dioceses. rome, alexandria and antioch became organizational foci of the church, and the bishops of constantinople and jerusalem were later recognized as possessing similar honour and authority, especially in hearing appeals against local bishops and in settling disputes among them. At the councils of Constantinople I (381) and Chalcedon (451) the see of Constantinople was recognized as second in honour to Rome, giving the bishops of the empire's two capitals pre-eminent jurisdiction in East and West respectively. The Roman popes long resisted this decision, actively promoting their rival claim to supreme and universal jurisdiction. The title ecumenical patriarch was first used by the patriarch of Constantinople john the faster in the sixth century. From the sixth century the hierarchs of these five sees ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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