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Subject Religion » Christianity

DOI: 10.1111/b.9780631232032.2001.x


Greek: Pontos. Traditionally Pontus extended from the Halys river (Kīzīl Irmak) in the west to Colchis ( lazica ) in the east and inland to Sebasteia (Sivas). Sinope, founded by Greeks from Miletos, served as a base for founding further colonies, including Trapezous (Trebizond or Trabzon) in 756 BC. After the campaigns of Alexander the Great (d. 323 BC) the Persian satraps of Pontus founded an independent kingdom that, under the Mithridatic dynasty, expanded to include regions across asia minor and north of the Black Sea. This kingdom was conquered by the Romans and divided into two distinct regions, Pontus Galaticus in the west and Pontus Polemoniacus in the east. The eastern kingdom retained its independence to 63 BC. Christianity arrived early, and Pontus was largely Christian by the fourth century. Theodoropolis-Euchaneia in the west was named for the great martyrs Theodore Stratelates and Theodore Teron, and Diospontus province was renamed Helenopontus for Helen, mother of constantine the great . In the Byzantine era important monastic centres developed ( see holy mountains ) including monasteries in Chaldia, like Soumela and Vazelon which survived into the twentieth century. Pontus was open to incursions of the Caucasian peoples, like the Tzanoi ( see adzharia ), and ravaged by the Persian and Arab invasions from the seventh century. After the battle of Mantzikert ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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