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Subject Philosophy

People Calvin, John

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405106795.2004.x


P hilosophy of religion The theological teaching and political views developed by the French theologian and church reformer John Calvin and defended by seventeenth-century Calvinist scholars. Calvin rejected Aristotelian scholasticism and advocated a kind of natural theology in which our belief in God is rooted in our innate instinct. Scripture is the norm as well as the source by which the faithful can attain certitude with regard to the content of revelation without the need of an infallible ecclesiastical interpretation. Calvin emphasized the doctrine of pre-destination and claimed that humans have not had freedom since the Fall. He claimed that church and state have different tasks and should be constructed independently of each other. Church is not a supernatural instrument for salvation. It should be reformed and corrected by each of the faithful according to the scriptures. A resistance to the rulers rather than passive submission is also advocated. Calvin's thinking exerted great influence in the Renaissance and Reformation era throughout Western Europe. “For Calvinists, the question of whether or not their souls were predestined to salvation was of the utmost significance.” Keat and Urry, Social Theory as Science ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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