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Subject Philosophy

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405106795.2004.x


E pistemology a rigorously positivist and radically empirical philosophy, established by the German philosopher Richard Avenarius and developed by the Austrian scientist and philosopher Ernst Mach . Developing the thought of Berkeley and Hume , empirio-criticism claims that all we can know is our sensations and that knowledge should be confined to pure experience . Any metaphysical claims, such as the objective existence of the external world or of causation , which transcends experience and cannot be verified by experience, must be rejected as a construct of the mind. Philosophy should be based on scientific principles. This position influenced logical positivism and James 's pragmatism . Lenin severely attacked it in his Materialism and Empirio-Criticism (1908) and even claimed that this type of philosophy represents the interests of capitalism. What he criticized was the espousal of Mach's views by his fellow Bolsheviks Bogdanov, Bazarov, and others. “I shall refer to those arguments by which materialism is being combated … Machians. I shall use this latter term throughout as a synonym for ‘empirio-criticists’….” Lenin, Materialism and Empirio-Criticism ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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