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Subject Philosophy

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405106795.2004.x


A ncient greek philosophy, epistemology [Greek, knowledge] Knowledge , from which the word epistemology is formed. Plato regarded knowledge as a cognitive state of the soul concerned solely with unchanging and necessary objects, the Ideas or Forms . Knowledge contrasts with belief ( doxa ), the cognitive state concerned with sensible things. For Plato, the contrast between episteme and doxa is essential for establishing the theory of Ideas. Aristotle normally confined knowledge to the demonstrative sciences, which provide necessary and invariant truths about necessary and invariable states of affairs. These sciences start from necessary premises, proceed through syllogistic deduction, and reach necessary conclusions. The necessary premises that form the first principles of these sciences are not grasped by episteme , but by nous (intuition). “Episteme then is by its nature directed to what is, to know it as it is.” Plato, Republic ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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