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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation and Volition

Tilo Hartmann

Subject Psychology
Communication Studies » Communication Reception and Effects

Key-Topics motivation

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405131995.2008.x


Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and volition are important constructs in research on →  selective exposure to media. Building on recent psychological theories of action ( Gollwitzer 1990 ; Heckhausen & Kuhl 1985 ), media exposure results if a person develops an (intrinsically or extrinsically motivated) intention and invests sufficient volitional effort to carry out the intention. A general aspiration to turn to a medium is developed in a motivational phase that precedes any action (sometimes termed the “deliberative phase”). In the motivational phase, a mere wish to acquire a certain psychological or material outcome is translated into an intention to acquire that outcome via media exposure (called a “behavioral intention”; Gollwitzer 1993 ; Vorderer 1993 ). Expectancy-value-based evaluations underlie the formation process (→  Expectancy Value Model ; Uses and Gratifications ; e.g., Babrow 1989 ). Knowledge derived from one's own prior experiences (→  Habituation ) and →  Information obtained by the observations of others feed the translation from a wish to a general behavioral intention. For example, a vague wish to feel socially engaged could result in the intention to go out to the movies, as prior knowledge exists that the movie characters and other movie-goers effectively provide a social atmosphere. Accordingly, the individual would both deem it very likely ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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