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DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405168908.2010.x


A model for analyzing processes of communication, explored particularly in television research. Drawing on S emiology and on the writing of B arthes , the approach suggests that meanings arise from a work of signification through C odes , of which audiences make sense in ways which may differ. The model emphasizes power and conflict in the construction of representations, and tensions between media organizations and their publics, so that “preferred” meanings may be accepted, negotiated or opposed in ways linked to not only C lass, Gender , and “ethnicity” but also to positions in D iscourse and to viewing/reading contexts. Such analyses are difficult and contested (it is argued that the “codes” are hard to distinguish and that audience “resistance” has been exaggerated). However, in stressing attempts to secure “dominant” meanings and even more, the activity of media users has stimulated empirical and theoretical work, raising important issues. 1980 (1986) : “Codes and cultural analysis.” . 1980a : “Encoding/decoding.” . 1985 : “Decoding television news.” . 1992 : Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies . ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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