Full Text

Panama, nationalism and popular mobilization, 1947–2000

María Ximena Alvarez Martínez


Extract

Panama's twentieth-century history is scarred by US intervention and aggression against the country's sovereignty. On November 18, 1903, only 15 days after its independence from Colombia, the Treaty of Hay-Bunau Varilla with the US was signed. This treaty granted the Americans the right to construct an inter-oceanic canal, military occupation of the zone, and the prerogative to grant its independence, an element used to justify US interventions in Panama's internal affairs. In 1941 a new constitutional article was approved that removed its authority for military intervention, but this was generally ignored. Hoping to maintain military bases outside the Canal Zone, in December 1947 the US sought approval of the Treaty of Defense Sites in the Panamanian National Assembly that would have extended a war measure passed in 1942. In spite of the frustrated efforts of President Enrique A Jimenes to convince the population that the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (TIAR, September 1947) would give the country the advantage of security, the people's opposition was quickly demonstrated. Members of Panama's Students' Federation (FEP), the Youth Patriotic Front, and other organizations took to the streets on December 12 to protest the treaty, which was seen as an insult to the country's already vulnerable sovereignty. This social upheaval with nationalistic undertones forced the ... log in or subscribe to read full text

Log In

You are not currently logged-in to Blackwell Reference Online

If your institution has a subscription, you can log in here:

 

     Forgotten your password?

Find out how to subscribe.

Your library does not have access to this title. Please contact your librarian to arrange access.


[ access key 0 : accessibility information including access key list ] [ access key 1 : home page ] [ access key 2 : skip navigation ] [ access key 6 : help ] [ access key 9 : contact us ] [ access key 0 : accessibility statement ]

Blackwell Publishing Home Page

Blackwell Reference Online ® is a Blackwell Publishing Inc. registered trademark
Technology partner: Semantico Ltd.

Blackwell Publishing and its licensors hold the copyright in all material held in Blackwell Reference Online. No material may be resold or published elsewhere without Blackwell Publishing's written consent, save as authorised by a licence with Blackwell Publishing or to the extent required by the applicable law.

Back to Top