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Polish Revolution of 1830

Amy Linch

Subject History
Social Movements » Collective Behaviour

Place Eastern Europe » Poland

Period 1000 - 1999 » 1800-1899

Key-Topics emigration, nationalism, revolution, war

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405184649.2009.01201.x


Also known as the November Insurrection, or the Cadet Revolution, a conspiracy to depose an unpopular agent of the tsar generated a year-long campaign to restore Poland's independence. The uprising began with a group of cadets from the Imperial Russian military academy in Warsaw under the leadership of Piotr Wysocki, and quickly drew the support of all aspects of society. The Poles were ultimately defeated by the Russian forces, resulting in mass migration of political elites from the Polish territories. The Polish territories under Russian rule in 1830 constituted the Congress Kingdom of Poland, established at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Under Tsar Alexander I, the Congress Kingdom was originally semi-autonomous, with its own parliament, constitution, and military. By the time Tsar Nicholas I took the throne in 1825 much of the kingdom's independence was already compromised in practice but repression intensified under his rule. In 1830, the constitution of 1815 was a dead letter, secret police were everywhere, and censorship was severe. Polish organizations were persecuted and Russians had largely replaced Poles in administrative positions. The tense situation in the kingdom was ignited by Russia's mobilization of the Polish army to suppress revolutionary uprisings in France and Belgium. On the night of November 29, 1830, the cadets attacked the residence of Grand Duke Konstantin ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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