Full Text


Robert Goodrich

Subject History » Political History
Legal and Political » Political Philosophy

Place Western Europe » Austria

Period 1000 - 1999 » 1900-1999

People Kautsky, Karl

Key-Topics capitalism, communism, ideology, revolution, socialism

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405184649.2009.00158.x


Noted for its theoretical engagement with contemporary philosophical and social scientific thought and for its political activity up to 1934 in “Red Vienna,” Austro-Marxism developed after 1900 out of the Viennese socialist student movement. Its members included M. Adler, O. Bauer , R. Hilferding , G. Eckstein, K. Renner, and others. The movement coalesced in 1903 with the Fabian-style association Zukunft ( Future ) and the publication of Marx Studien (1904–34) and Der Kampf ( The Struggle ) (1907–34). Largely a nationally specific reaction to the revisionist debate within the Second International, Austro-Marxism dealt less with political strategy than with the question of Marxist theory and methodology. Thus, while open to revision, it did not directly challenge the revolutionary platform of orthodox Marxism . Austro-Marxists instead expanded Marxism's theoretical basis by avoiding monocausality and economic reductionism while engaging non-Marxist theory, especially Neo-Kantianism, the Austrian Marginalist School of economics, and positivist philosophy. Less a coherent system than a methodological pragmatism, Austro-Marxism favored a social scientific Marxism that was methodologically reflective, anti-dogmatic, and empirical. Essentially, Austro-Marxism prioritized a social scientific methodology within Marxism rather than a general Marxist social theory. Initially, the ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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