Full Text

Colombia, armed insurgency, peasant self-defense, and radical popular movements, 1970s–1990s

Hermann Ruiz

Subject History
Social Movements » Collective Behaviour

Place South America » Colombia

Period 1000 - 1999 » 1900-1999

Key-Topics guerilla war, movements, revolution, rural

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405184649.2009.00373.x


The 1960s opened a dynamic era of communist-inspired guerilla movements in Colombia. The Colombian army, supported by the United States, reacted quickly and harshly, defeating some of the guerilla groups. Even so, these years saw the birth of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN), and the Maoist Popular Army of Liberation (Ejército Popular de Liberación, EPL), the three most influential groups in the 1980s and 1990s. In this climate, the elections of 1970 brought hope for the end of the National Front (Frente Nacional), an agreement between liberals and conservatives to distribute the state administration and jobs in an undemocratic effort to stop the struggles that were known as La Violencia . General Alberto Rojas Pinilla (1900–75), who had organized a coup d'état in 1953, founded the Popular National Alliance (Alianza Nacional Popular, ANAPO) to orchestrate the National Front's defeat in elections and usher in real democracy. This initiative brought together various popular sectors, including socialists. In a controversial outcome, the National Front candidate, Misael Pastrana Borrero (1923–97), was elected. Unhappy with the election results, the socialist faction of ANAPO created the September 19 movement (M-19) in 1972. Inspired by its independence heritage and Simón Bolívar's revolutionary ... log in or subscribe to read full text

Log In

You are not currently logged-in to Blackwell Reference Online

If your institution has a subscription, you can log in here:


     Forgotten your password?

Find out how to subscribe.

Your library does not have access to this title. Please contact your librarian to arrange access.

[ access key 0 : accessibility information including access key list ] [ access key 1 : home page ] [ access key 2 : skip navigation ] [ access key 6 : help ] [ access key 9 : contact us ] [ access key 0 : accessibility statement ]

Blackwell Publishing Home Page

Blackwell Reference Online ® is a Blackwell Publishing Inc. registered trademark
Technology partner: Semantico Ltd.

Blackwell Publishing and its licensors hold the copyright in all material held in Blackwell Reference Online. No material may be resold or published elsewhere without Blackwell Publishing's written consent, save as authorised by a licence with Blackwell Publishing or to the extent required by the applicable law.

Back to Top