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Colombia, armed insurgency, peasant self-defense, and radical popular movements, 1970s–1990s

Hermann Ruiz


Subject History
Social Movements » Collective Behaviour

Place South America » Colombia

Period 1000 - 1999 » 1900-1999

Key-Topics guerilla war, movements, revolution, rural

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405184649.2009.00373.x


Extract

The 1960s opened a dynamic era of communist-inspired guerilla movements in Colombia. The Colombian army, supported by the United States, reacted quickly and harshly, defeating some of the guerilla groups. Even so, these years saw the birth of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN), and the Maoist Popular Army of Liberation (Ejército Popular de Liberación, EPL), the three most influential groups in the 1980s and 1990s. In this climate, the elections of 1970 brought hope for the end of the National Front (Frente Nacional), an agreement between liberals and conservatives to distribute the state administration and jobs in an undemocratic effort to stop the struggles that were known as La Violencia . General Alberto Rojas Pinilla (1900–75), who had organized a coup d'état in 1953, founded the Popular National Alliance (Alianza Nacional Popular, ANAPO) to orchestrate the National Front's defeat in elections and usher in real democracy. This initiative brought together various popular sectors, including socialists. In a controversial outcome, the National Front candidate, Misael Pastrana Borrero (1923–97), was elected. Unhappy with the election results, the socialist faction of ANAPO created the September 19 movement (M-19) in 1972. Inspired by its independence heritage and Simón Bolívar's revolutionary ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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