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CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)

Amy Hatmaker

Subject History
Social Movements » Collective Behaviour

Place Northern America » United States of America

Period 1000 - 1999 » 1900-1999

People Kautsky, Karl

Key-Topics African American, equality, racism, revolution

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405184649.2009.00406.x


The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was one of the first groups that practiced non-violent resistance in the civil rights struggle . Formed in 1942, CORE would be instrumental in the fight to secure desegregation of public spaces. The idea for CORE was originally conceived by James Farmer, race relations secretary of the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), a Quaker group that denounced all violence. Inspired by Gandhi , Farmer and an interracial group of friends, including Bernice Fisher, James R. Robinson, Joe Guinn, George Houser, and Homer Jack, founded CORE (originally called the Committee on Racial Equality). CORE members instigated sit-ins at segregated restaurants and entertainment facilities and moved into fringe neighborhoods in mixed groups to battle restrictive access to housing beginning in 1942. In 1946 the Supreme Court ruled in Morgan v. Virginia that segregation of seating in interstate transportation was unconstitutional. CORE and FOR decided to test this case by attempting a Journey of Reconciliation. Mixed groups of blacks and whites would attempt to ride buses through parts of the upper South. In North Carolina, a group of the riders was arrested. The incident brought CORE into the national spotlight. Additionally, it achieved a great measure of success in integrating facilities in the North. Volunteers had kept the organization moving forward; Farmer ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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