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Venezuela, MBR–200 and the military uprisings of 1992

Dario Azzellini and Gregory Wilpert


Founded in December 1982, the Revolutionary Bolivarian Army 200 (EBR–200), later renamed Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement 200 (MBR–200), was a clandestine civil-military organization with the goal of overthrowing the government and building a more just system. Founding members Hugo Chávez Frías , Yoel Acosta Chirinos, and Jesús Urdaneta Hernández symbolically swore a Bolivarian oath under the same tree (Samán de Güere) , where Simón Bolívar is said to have rested. The organization worked intensively against social injustice and corruption within the political system of Venezuela. They were inspired by Simón Bolívar, Ezequiel Zamora , and Simón Rodríguez. They were also influenced by Jean-Jacques Rousseau , especially his radical democratic ideas. MBR–200 was finally dissolved before the elections in 1998 and integrated into the Movimiento V República (MVR). The movement spread quickly throughout the army, especially among the young officers, who found its Bolivarian orientation and anti-corruption stance appealing. It was a politically broad discourse which concentrated on bridging the growing gap between the constitution and reality. Inside the army and the National Guard, discontent grew after the brutal repression of the anti-neoliberal rebellion in Caracazo in 1989, and MBR–200 expanded rapidly. The experience of Caracazo and pressure by civil groups persuaded MBR–200 ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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