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Subject History

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405189224.2011.x


The movement of people to new locations is an important, if sometimes neglected, topic in modern European history. It is clearly relevant to issues of population size and distribution, and involves such major causal factors as economic necessity, war, political and religious persecution, and ethnic rivalry (see also ethnic cleansing ). The extent and pace of relocation have also been strongly influenced by advances in transport communications and, latterly, by changes even to concepts of citizenship. While much of the movement most worthy of note has operated on a regional basis within particular countries, historians also need to analyze even broader currents operative not simply between European states but with regard to emigration and immigration on an inter-continental scale as well. The commonest form of migrant experience was for long relatively localized, involving significant shifts of rural population into urban centers (see rural society ; urbanization ). This kind of relocation was a key feature of European industrialization from the late eighteenth century onward, though in some settings (especially the Russian one) it became quite strongly characterized by its seasonal or other temporary nature. On the inter-state plane, modern migratory movements have been so frequent as to permit only selective exemplification. One might refer, for instance, to the quite ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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