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October manifesto

Subject History

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405189224.2011.x


Officially the Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order , this was part of Tsar nicholas ii's response to the russian revolution of 1905. Published on October 30 of that year, it had been hastily composed, partly by witte . Its intention was to stem continuing internal unrest and rioting by promising concrete reforms. These “essential foundations of civil liberty” included freedom of religion, freedom from arbitrary arrest, freedom of assembly, and freedom of association – rights that were already taken for granted in much of north-western Europe. The manifesto also looked ahead to the introduction of universal male suffrage and the creation of a duma possessing the right to oversee all legislation. The tsar had little faith in such reforms and continued to rule autocratically. Though the manifesto appeased the kadets , it left other political groups, most notably the menshe-viks and bolsheviks , wholly unimpressed. ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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