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Alfonso XIII


Subject History

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405189224.2011.x


Extract

(1886–1941), King of spain (1886–1931). As alfonso xii's posthumous son, he effectively began his rulership only in 1902. This followed a period of regency by his mother Queen Maria Cristina, during which the Spanish-American War of 1898 led to the loss of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. Within Spain he was always an unpopular figure (the target of five assassination attempts), constantly troubled by left-wing and Catalan agitation. He responded with a brutality that brought him international condemnation. Alfonso kept Spain out of World War I, yet seemed incapable of halting the general decline of his country's international standing. In 1921 the Spanish army suffered a huge reverse in the Rif war when defeated by Moroccan tribesmen at Annual. To quell growing domestic disquiet, Alfonso paved the way for the dictatorship of Miguel primo de rivera (1923–30), though this too was unsuccessful. With the restoration of elections in 1931, a second republic was inaugurated and Alfonso went into exile in Italy where he remained until his death. He abdicated formally in 1940, and the monarchy was not restored until his grandson, juan carlos i , came to the throne at the end of the franco regime in 1975. ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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