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Falange Española

Subject History

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405189224.2011.x


The “Spanish Phalanx” was founded in October 1933 by José Antonio primo de rivera to articulate a brand of fascism designed specifically for this national context. The movement initially struggled, and in 1934 fused with the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista, a far-right fringe grouping. In the 1936 elections the Falange won less than 1 percent of the popular vote, and soon after the outbreak of the spanish civil war its founder was tried and executed by a Republican court. However, the movement was swiftly appropriated by the Nationalist leader, franco . In 1937 he transformed it into the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS). This incorporated several other right-wing groupings including the supporters of carlism , and developed a broader and more popular Catholic and conservative base. Under Franco it became the only party permitted in Spain, and in the period 1939–42 its Grand Council served as the chief law-making assembly. The Falange was tasked with generating an ideology for the Nationalist regime, and established a series of youth and women's movements modeled on fascist Italy. Yet Franco himself increasingly sought freedom of action from his earlier supporters, and in the 1960s relied particularly on the advice of young technocrats in his attempts to modernize Spain. The Falange was dissolved ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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