Full Text

Fourteen Points


Subject History

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405189224.2011.x


Extract

Principles announced to the US Congress on January 8, 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, as a basis for ending world war i . They covered: 1  “open covenants of peace, openly arrived at”; 2  freedom of maritime navigation; 3  removal of economic barriers; 4  guarantees of future armaments reduction; 5  “impartial adjustment of all colonial claims”; 6  evacuation of all Russian territory; 7  full restoration of Belgian sovereignty; 8  French recovery of alsace-lorraine ; 9  readjustment of Italy's frontiers “along clearly recognizable lines of nationality”; 10  “freest opportunity” for the peoples of Austria-Hungary to enjoy “autonomous development”; 11  evacuation of romania , serbia , and montenegro , with international guarantees for the territorial integrity of these Balkan states; 12  secure sovereignty for the Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire, coupled with “unmolested opportunity of autonomous development” for its other nationalities, plus freedom of maritime passage through the dardanelles ; 13  establishment of an independent poland , with secure access to the sea; and 14  formation of “a general association of nations” to provide mutual guarantees of independence and territorial integrity for great and small states alike. When Germany and Austria-Hungary sued for an armistice 10 months later, this was the relatively non-punitive scenario to which they ... log in or subscribe to read full text

Log In

You are not currently logged-in to Blackwell Reference Online

If your institution has a subscription, you can log in here:

 

     Forgotten your password?

Find out how to subscribe.

Your library does not have access to this title. Please contact your librarian to arrange access.


[ access key 0 : accessibility information including access key list ] [ access key 1 : home page ] [ access key 2 : skip navigation ] [ access key 6 : help ] [ access key 9 : contact us ] [ access key 0 : accessibility statement ]

Blackwell Publishing Home Page

Blackwell Reference Online ® is a Blackwell Publishing Inc. registered trademark
Technology partner: Semantico Ltd.

Blackwell Publishing and its licensors hold the copyright in all material held in Blackwell Reference Online. No material may be resold or published elsewhere without Blackwell Publishing's written consent, save as authorised by a licence with Blackwell Publishing or to the extent required by the applicable law.

Back to Top