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Rizal, José (1861–1896)


Subject Sociology » Sociology of Development

Place South-Eastern Asia » Philippines

Period 1000 - 1999 » 1800-1899

Key-Topics colonialism, decolonization, Eurocentrism, imperialism

DOI: 10.1111/b.9781405124331.2007.x


José Rizal, Filipino thinker and activist, may be considered the first systematic social thinker in Southeast Asia. While the bulk of his writings does not fall under social sciences, it is possible to extract a sociological theory from his work. This would be a theory that explains the nature and conditions of Filipino colonial society and specifies the requirements for its emancipation. José Protasio Rizal y Alonso was born in Calamba, Laguna, the Philippines, on June 19, 1861, into a wealthy family. His father ran a sugar plantation on land leased from the Dominican Order, while his mother was a highly educated woman. Rizal was himself educated at home until the age of 11, after which he attended the best schools in Manila. He went on to study at the Ateneo de Manila University, then at the University of Santo Thomas. He was known to be a well-rounded student, having studied medicine and the humanities simultaneously. In addition to being a qualified ophthalmologist, Rizal was also a writer, poet, ethnologist, sculptor, cartoonist, fencer, sharpshooter, and linguist ( Coates, 1978 : 1905–1906). In 1882 Rizal left for Spain, where he continued his studies in medicine and the humanities at the Universidad Central in Madrid. At the same time he became familiar with liberal movements and modern constitutions and began to draw lessons for the analysis of Spanish rule in the Philippines. ... log in or subscribe to read full text

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